Drivers of social mobility

Drivers of social mobility are the background conditions that make social mobility easier.

Highlighted data

Distribution of parental occupation

There has been a continuing increase in the proportion of families in which the adults have professional and managerial occupations.


Labour market earnings of young people

Growth in real hourly pay for young people has been poor over the last 15 years, partly due to drops after 2008 and 2022.


Business research and development spending

Business research and development (R and D) spending has been increasing since 2011, reaching its peak in 2017.


Elsewhere in State of the Nation 2023

Mobility outcomes look at where people end up, typically in their 40s or 50s. They look at people’s socio-economic class, income, education and housing.

Intermediate outcomes focus on the experiences of young people as they move through education and into the labour market.

Read the full report

State of the Nation 2023 on GOV.UK.