Drivers of social mobility
Drivers of social mobility are the background conditions that make social mobility easier.
Distribution of parental occupation
There has been a continuing increase in the proportion of families in which the adults have professional and managerial occupations.Read more...
Labour market earnings of young people
Growth in real hourly pay for young people has been poor over the last 15 years, partly due to drops after 2008 and 2022.Read more...
Business research and development spending
Business research and development (R and D) spending has been increasing since 2011, reaching its peak in 2017.Read more...
Elsewhere in State of the Nation 2023
Mobility outcomes look at where people end up, typically in their 40s or 50s. They look at people’s socio-economic class, income, education and housing.
Intermediate outcomes focus on the experiences of young people as they move through education and into the labour market.
Read the full report
State of the Nation 2023 on GOV.UK.